2003


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Volume 5, No. 1 - Fall 2003 Issue #9 - Symposium on "Rand, Rush, and Rock"

PROBLEMATIC ARGUMENTS IN RANDIAN ETHICS, pp. 1-66

ERIC MACK

critical survey of a range of arguments characteristic of Randian writings in ethics (including Craig Biddle's Loving Life). He focuses on "the Shuffle," a set of argumentative moves in which there is illicit shifting back and forth between causal and conceptual understandings and defenses of claims of the form: Man's survival requires man's behaving in manner X (e.g., being rational, being productive). Mack concludes that much Randian argumentation is deeply flawed and urges admirers to discriminate between Rand's genuine individualist ethical crusade and her line-by-line argumentation, which includes a much too strict identification of man's good with man's survival.

WHAT ARE ENTITIES?, pp. 67-86

DAVID J. JILK

Jilk argues that the division of existence into entities is a result of epistemological processes and is not intrinsic to existence. The physical content of what we call an entity exists independent of any conscious observer. But that which we call an entity is not actually separate in reality from the rest of existence—its isolation as independent is solely the result of objective epistemological processes.

REVIEWS

ART AND THE PURSUIT OF A CULTURAL RENAISSANCE, pp. 87-95

KIRSTI MINSAAS

review of Alexandra York's essay-collection, From the Fountainhead to the Future. Minsaas points out certain similarities between York's campaign for a cultural renaissance and Ayn Rand's call, in The Romantic Manifesto, for a rebirth of the ideals that informed the Romantic movement. Basically sympathetic to York's project, Minsaas does, however, express certain reservations about York's activist approach, which she finds weakens the book's scholarly value. Also, she finds that York is too one-sided in her advocacy of a life-affirming and inspiring art by downplaying the need for art that explores the darker sides of life in constructive ways.

REBUTTAL WITNESSES, pp. 97-103

DEAN BROOKS

review of Facets of Ayn Rand, the first in a series of oral histories published by the Ayn Rand Institute. The book delivers some relevant and needed background on Rand's everyday life as seen by longtime friends Mary Ann and Charles Sures. However, it falls short in its stated objective of rebutting Rand's critics. Events already described at great length in other biographies are here given a heavily censored and unconvincing "party line."

DISCUSSION

REPLY TO THE AESTHETICS SYMPOSIUM (SPRING 2001): SCHOLARLY ENGAGEMENT: WHEN IT IS PLEASURABLE AND WHEN IT IS NOT, pp. 105-51

LOUIS TORRES

Torres examines key studies and commentaries on the nature of scholarship, especially regarding commonly accepted standards of scholarly writing, before responding to the essays in The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies' Aesthetics Symposium, most of which critiqued portions of What Art Is: The Esthetic Theory of Ayn Rand. He concludes that only two of the essays meet such standards as knowledge of subject matter, rules of evidence, clarity of communication (especially avoidance of jargon), and integrity (including honesty, objectivity, and civility) - even when critical of his and Michelle Kamhi's co-authored work. The other essays, he argues, are flawed in varying respects.


AYN RAND AND PROGRESSIVE ROCK SYMPOSIUM ON "RAND, RUSH, AND ROCK" REPLIES TO CHRIS MATTHEW SCIABARRA'S FALL 2002 ARTICLE

TO RAND OR NOT TO RAND?: NEIL PEART'S VARIED INFLUENCES, pp. 153-60

DURRELL BOWMAN

Bowman suggests that Ayn Rand's influence on Neil Peart's lyrics mainly existed in a few science-fiction and technology-oriented works from the mid-1970s to the early-1980s. Peart's individualism in the 1980s had at least as much to do with Hemingway, Faulkner, religious imagery (although he was an agnostic), and other influences. Many of his lyrics (1975-2002) suggest "left-wing libertarianism," random contingencies, science, nature, the environment, relationships, and even humor. In any case, Peart's copious reading and varied lyrics contradict Rand as his "major influence."

RAND, RUSH, AND DE-TOTALIZING THE UTOPIANISM OF PROGRESSIVE ROCK, pp. 161-72

STEVEN HORWITZ

Horwitz argues that the music of Rush can legitimately claim to be progressive rock, both during the mid-70s when their music was most clearly related to that tradition and in their less obviously progressive work in the 80s and 90s. Rush's libertarian/Randian lyrics do not, as several authors argue, reduce their claim to progressivity because libertarianism can be viewed as a progressive, utopian social philosophy. Rush's career parallels the rise of libertarian thought, and the band's move away from large, long-song structures parallels libertarianism's critique of the totalizing, centralized utopias of much leftist thought.

CONCERNING THE POLITICS OF PROG, pp. 173-88

ED MACAN

Macan considers whether progressive rock is inextricably linked to a specific political ideology. Progressive rock emerged out of the late sixties British hippie movement. Its politics, though influenced by the left, were never monolithic. Using the late nineteenth-century philosophical/cultural phenomenon of "Wagnerism" as a point of reference, Macan demonstrates that progressive rock's impact was primarily a result not of its nebulous political ideology, but of its aesthetic stance, which stresses individualism, idealism, authenticity, and art-as-transcendence. In keeping with its Romantic ethos of transcendence and a utopian politics, progressive rock subjected philosophical, cultural, and social opposites to a Hegelian synthesis.

AYN RAND AND THE MUSIC OF RUSH: RHAPSODIC REFLECTIONS, pp. 189-213

BILL MARTIN

Martin replies to Sciabarra's essay on Rand, Rush, and progressive rock with critical reflections from a Marxist perspective. Focusing on the film version of The Fountainhead, which shares much in common with film noir and Socialist Realism, Martin rejects as reification Rand's emphasis on property as the defining feature of human life. Her dismissal of rock music has overtones of racism and Eurocentrism. The rock band Rush may have drawn inspiration from Howard Roark, but two other real-life role models would have been better suited: Ludwig van Beethoven and Frank Lloyd Wright.

FANCY MEETING RAND HERE, pp. 215-18

ROBERT M. PRICE

Price replies to Sciabarra's criticism that Carol Selby Price and Robert Price's Mystic Rhythms erroneously classifies Rush lyricist Neil Peart as "conservative." "Conservative" may imply limitation of individual freedom by the government—or by organized religion. Peart leans more toward a non-religious libertarianism and Rand's Objectivism, which may be considered "conservative" in the same narrow sense. Ironically, Randian thinkers share with religion the use of the Hero Myth archetype. Price focuses on recent Rand-type comic book superheroes, including Steve Ditko's Mister A and The Question, and Alan Moore's parody on these, Rorschach.

SAYING YES TO RAND AND ROCK, pp. 219-23

PETER SAINT-ANDRE

This article explores the personal meaning of progressive rock music (especially the music of Yes) and Rand's fiction as both consistent with a world-view that values "joy and reason and meaning." This exploration leads the author to ask whether Rand's novels and philosophical project are progressive, and to urge further cross-pollination between libertarian and progressive thinking and action in politics and the arts.

LYRICIST NEIL PEART: A BRANDENIAN PEDIGREE, pp. 225-27

THOMAS WELSH

Welsh calls for further interpretations of the lyrics of noted rock musician-artist Neil Peart; he argues that it might uncover a broader Randian influence than currently reported and thus contribute to the ongoing resurrection of her ideas in popular culture. Welsh speculates that Peart might have more in common with Rand's long-time associate, psychologist Nathaniel Branden, especially on the usage, meaning, and practice of self-esteem.

REJOINDER TO THE RESPONDENTS: RAND, ROCK, AND RADICALISM, pp. 229-41

LYRICIST NEIL PEART: A BRANDENIAN PEDIGREE, pp. 225-27

CHRIS MATTHEW SCIABARRA

Sciabarra replies to the seven respondents to his Fall 2002 essay on Rand, Rush, and progressive rock music. He defends the view that Rand's dialectical orientation underlies a fundamentally radical perspective. Rand shared with the counterculture - especially its libertarian progressive rock representatives - a repudiation of authoritarianism, while embracing the "unknown ideal" of capitalism. Her ability to trace the interrelationships among personal, cultural, and structural factors in social analysis and her repudiation of false alternatives is at the heart of that ideal vision, which transcends left and right.

Volume 4, No. 2 - Spring 2003 Issue #8

OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING AND OBJECTIVIST EPISTEMOLOGY: PARALLELS AND IMPLICATIONS, pp. 251-84

ADAM REED

Reed finds that the architectures of knowledge representation in Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) and in Ayn Rand’s Objectivist epistemology are exactly isomorphic, and were first proposed at about the same time. These similarities did not result from mutual influence, but from the need to represent knowledge, in both systems, in accordance with the same facts of reality. Thanks to the isomorphism of knowledge representation in the two systems, logical techniques developed in the context of OOP, such as scope-tracking and inheritance, are directly usable and useful in objective logic based on Objectivist epistemology.

ZAMYATIN AND RAND, pp. 285-304

PETER SAINT-ANDRE

Saint-Andre explores the possible literary and intellectual influence on Ayn Rand of the Russian writer and theorist Yevgeny Zamyatin, author of the dystopian novel, We.

A CRITIQUE OF OBJECTIVIST METAETHICS, pp. 305-20

STEPHEN E. PARRISH

Parrish critiques Tara Smith's defense of Objectivist metaethics. He argues that Smith fails to provide a successful defense of the Objectivist ethics and its standard of life as the ultimate value. Her theories lead to strongly counter-intuitive results and suggest larger problems for the Objectivist metaethics in general. [A condensed version of the essay is published here.]

REVIEWS

BUSINESS PRACTICE: APPLIED MORAL PHILOSOPHY, pp. 321-26

STEPHEN R. C. HICKS

Hicks reviews Ayn Rand and Business. He argues that management professors Donna Greiner and Theodore Kinni have written a fine, short volume integrating Ayn Rand's moral theory with management theory and practice. This book will be useful to professionals seeking an introduction to the relevance of Objectivism's ethics to successful business practice.

PHILOSOPHY, WEALTH-CREATION, AND SELF-ESTEEM: OBJECTIVIST WRITINGS ON BUSINESS, pp. 327-59

LISA D. McNARY

McNARY writes: One of the effects of the growth economy throughout much of the 1990s is a resurgence in the popularity of books related to business - many from fields not often associated with the genre. In this review essay, three books, which highlight the intersection of philosophy, business, and psychology, are assessed: an Ayn Rand Institute anthology, Why Businessmen Need Philosophy, Edwin Locke's The Prime Movers: Traits of the Great Wealth Creators, and Nathaniel Branden's Self-Esteem at Work: How Confident People Make Powerful Companies.

NYQUIST CONTRA RAND, pp. 361-72

FRED SEDDON

Seddon provides a chapter by chapter examination of Greg Nyquist's Ayn Rand Contra Human Nature. Nyquist gives a detailed exploration of all of the major branches of Rand's philosophy as well as Rand's philosophy of history and her philosophical anthropology.

AYN RAND IN THE SCHOLARLY LITERATURE III: AYN RAND LITERARY CRITICISM, pp. 373-94

MIMI REISEL GLADSTEIN

Gladstein charts the trajectory of the breakthrough in critical attention to Ayn Rand as a literary artist. Gladstein explores the paucity and negative character of early critical reaction in the context of some similarities to other writers, such as Faulkner and Steinbeck, who, like Rand, challenged the thinking and mores of their communities and times. Like some authors who experience popularity with a wide audience, Rand was ignored by the academic establishment. However, the breakthrough in recent attention exhibits a variety and scope that bodes well for positioning Rand in the canon of twentieth-century fiction.

DISCUSSION

REPLY TO D. BARTON JOHNSON AND GENE H. BELL-VILLADA: THE SILENCE OF SYNTHESIS, pp. 395-404

JANE YODER

Yoder continues the discussion of odd Ayn Rand-Vladimir Nabokov couplings from the "strange bedfellow" designation applied by D. Barton Johnson (The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, Fall 2000) and Gene H. Bell-Villada's (Fall 2001) response to it. Yoder places additional emphasis upon issues of parricide, gaming, engineered structure, and the "brain drain" in her examination.

REPLY TO CAROLYN RAY: HOW NOT TO READ A BOOK, pp. 405-10

TOM PORTER

Porter replies to a review of Ayn Rand's Theory of Knowledge by Carolyn Ray ("Porter's Rand: A Commentary," The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, Fall 2001). He argues that Ray misunderstands his book because she assumes it needn't be read from the beginning.

REJOINDER TO TOM PORTER: SECOND THOUGHTS, p. 411

CAROLYN RAY

Ray reiterates her view that Tom Porter's book, Ayn Rand's Theory of Knowledge, is incoherent.

REPLY TO THE AESTHETICS SYMPOSIUM: WHAT "RAND'S AESTHETICS" IS, AND WHY IT MATTERS, pp. 413-89

MICHELLE MARDER KAMHI

The author offers an in-depth response to The Aesthetics Symposium (Spring 2001). In addition to answering many of the contributors' objections to What Art Is: The Esthetic Theory of Ayn Rand, she offers a critique of their own theses' in particular, Barry Vacker's claim that chaos theory is implicit in Rand's aesthetics, Jeff Riggenbach's argument that much of Rand's theory was anticipated by Susanne Langer and Stephen Pepper, and Roger Bissell's suggestion that the concept of a microcosm be applied to Rand's view of the function of art.



2003


CONTRIBUTOR BIOGRAPHIES

Volume 5, No. 1 - Fall 2003 Issue #9

DURRELL BOWMAN

Completed his Ph.D. in musicology at UCLA in 2003, with a dissertation entitled "Permanent Change: Rush, Musicians' Rock, and the Progressive Post-Counterculture." In 2003-04 he teaches as a part-time sessional instructor in popular music and culture at Barrie, Ontario's Georgian College. He also sings semi-professionally as a choral singer and works as a choral librarian, writer, editor, and computer consultant in the administration of the Elora Festival and Singers. In 2002-03 he served as a visiting instructor in the Department of Music at the University of Alberta, where he taught cultural musicology, popular music, film music, and music theory. His article "Let Them All Make Their Own Music: Individualism, Rush, and the Progressive/Hard Rock Alloy, 1976-77" appears in the book Progressive Rock Reconsidered (New York: Routledge, 2002). His paper "Textu(r)al Undercoding and the Music of the Rock Band Rush: String Quartets, Death Metal, Trip-Hop, and other Tributes" (presented in 2002-03 in Edmonton, New York, and elsewhere) argues that certain music facilitates an inversion of normative expectations concerning "progressive rock." Among his other publications and conference papers, an article on "Art Rock" appears in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, a review article on South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut appears in echo: a music-centered journal, and he also presented a paper at the 2003 IASPM-International conference in Montreal, Quebec.

DEAN BROOKS

is founder and president of Ekaros Analytical Inc., a Canadian company specializing in mathematical tools and training. He has written professionally for numerous publications, as well as editing and publishing several books including Fraud Detection and Digital Analysis Using Benford's Law. His past writing on Ayn Rand includes an essay defending TV's The Simpsons and outlining problems in the Objectivist approach to comedy, that appeared in Reality magazine in 1993.

STEVEN HORWITZ

Associate Dean of the First Year and Professor of Economics, St. Lawrence University in Canton, New York 13617, is the author of two books, Microfoundations and Macroeconomics: An Austrian Perspective (Routledge, 2000) and Monetary Evolution, Free Banking, and Economic Order (Westview, 1992). He has written extensively on Austrian economics, Hayekian political economy, monetary theory and history, and macroeconomics. His work has been published in professional journals such as History of Political Economy, Southern Economic Journal, and The Review of Austrian Economics. Horwitz currently serves as the book review editor of The Review of Austrian Economics and is the president of the Society for the Development of Austrian Economics. He is also a long-time Rush fan.

DAVID J. JILK

has had a longtime interest in Objectivism and in epistemology in particular. He has an extensive business background as an entrepreneur, investor, and executive in software and Internet companies. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and is currently studying computational models of cognitive systems at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

ED MACAN

Professor of Music, Art Department, College of the Redwoods,7351 Tompkins Hill Road, Eureka, California 95501, is the author of Rocking the Classics: English Progressive Rock and the Counterculture (Oxford University Press, 1997). He is also keyboardist, mallet percussionist, and principal composer of the band Hermetic Science, whose three albums, Hermetic Science (1997), Prophesies (1999), and En Route (2001) have won much critical acclaim in the worldwide progressive music community.

ERIC MACK

Tulane University, Department of Philosophy, Newcomb Hall, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118, is also a faculty member of Tulane's Murphy Institute of Political Economy. He has published extensively in scholarly journals and anthologies and lectured widely on topics in moral, political, and legal theory—especially on moral individualism and the agent-relativity of value, the philosophical foundation of moral rights, property rights, the legitimacy and authority (if any) of coercive institutions, the defense of classical liberalism against Marxist and egalitarian challenges, and classical liberal themes in the history of political philosophy.

BILL MARTIN

Professor of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, DePaul University, Byrne Hall, 2219 N. Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60614, is the author of seven books in the fields of social theory, contemporary continental philosophy, and music. At present, he is completing a book under the title, Ethical Marxism: The Categorical Imperative of Communism. He is also an avid cyclist and chessplayer, and he has played the bass guitar for over thirty years.

KIRSTI MINSAAS

University of Oslo, Department of British and American Studies, P. O. Box 1003 Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway, is senior lecturer in English literature at the University of Oslo. Receiving her doctorate in 1998, her dissertation topic was on the role of Aristotelian catharsis in Shakespearean tragedy, and she is currently working on a project on the "exemplary hero" in English literature from 1590 to 1820. She has also lectured extensively on Ayn Rand's fiction, both in Europe and in the United States.

ROBERT M. PRICE

is the editor of the Journal of Higher Criticism and Director of the Institute for Higher Critical Studies, affiliated with the Johnnie Colemon Theological Seminary. He is the author of Beyond Born Again (1983), The Widow Traditions in Luke-Acts: A Feminist-Critical Scrutiny (1996), Deconstructing Jesus (2000) and The Incredible Shrinking Son of Man (2003). He holds a Ph.D., Theology (1981) and a Ph.D., New Testament (1993) from Drew University.

PETER SAINT-ANDRE

is an independent scholar living in Denver, Colorado. When not working as Executive Director of the Jabber Software Foundation, he is also active as a poet, musician, translator, and essayist.

CHRIS MATTHEW SCIABARRA

CONTACT

NOTABLOG

received his Ph.D., with distinction, in political theory, philosophy, and methodology from New York University. He is the author of the “Dialectics and Liberty Trilogy,” which includes Marx, Hayek, and Utopia (State University of New York Press, 1995), Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical(Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), and Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism(Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000). He is also coeditor, with Mimi Reisel Gladstein, of Feminist Interpretations of Ayn Rand (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999), and a founding coeditor of The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies (1999–present). ). His articles and letters on popular culture and music have appeared in publications as diverse as the New York Daily News, Billboard, Film Score Monthly, Just Jazz Guitar, Jazz Times, and The Free Radical.

LOUIS TORRES

is an independent scholar and critic. He is co-author of What Art Is: The Esthetic Theory of Ayn Rand (2000), and is co-editor of Aristos, an online review of the arts---successor to the print journal of the same name, which he founded in 1982, and co-edited until its discontinuation in 1997. A graduate of Rutgers University, where he majored in Psychology, he earned an M.A. in the teaching of English at Teachers College, Columbia University. Prior to founding Aristos, he taught English and arts appreciation in public and private high schools. He is a specialist in the neglected fiction of Jack Schaefer, author of Shane.

THOMAS WELSH

is a technical writer and database administrator, supports BP SOLAR's global engineering product development efforts. He has reviewed Neil Peart's book, Ghost Rider: Travels on the Healing Road (2002) for various online and print publications. Past and present forays have included stints as a small business owner and working for the oldest university press, The Johns-Hopkins University Press.

Volume 4, No. 2 - Spring 2003 Issue #8

MIMI REISEL GLADSTEIN

Professor of English and Theatre Arts, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968-0526, is former Chair of the English and Philosophy Departments and former Associate Dean of Liberal Arts at her college. She currently serves as Chair of the Department of Theatre Arts and Film. She is the author of The New Ayn Rand Companion (Greenwood Press, 1999), Atlas Shrugged: Manifesto of the Mind (Twayne, 2000), and co-editor of Feminist Interpretations of Ayn Rand. Author of The Indestructible Woman in Faulkner, Hemingway, and Steinbeck, Gladstein has won international recognition for her work on John Steinbeck, including the Burkhardt Award for Outstanding Contributions to Steinbeck Studies in 1996.

STEPHEN R. C. HICKS

, Department of Philosophy, Rockford College, Rockford, Illinois 61108; is Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Honors Program in Liberal Arts at Rockford College. He is the co-editor, with David Kelley, of Readings for Logical Analysis (W. W. Norton, 1998), the author of the article on Ayn Rand for the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and the author of the forthcoming book, The Postmodern Mind: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault.

MICHELLE MARDER KAMHI

is an independent scholar and critic. She is co-author of What Art Is: The Esthetic Theory of Ayn Rand (2000), and co-editor of Aristos, an online review of the arts---successor to the journal of the same name that she co-edited from 1984 to 1997. A graduate of Barnard College, she earned an M.A. in Art History at Hunter College, City University of New York. Prior to her association with Aristos, she edited scholarly books, and also conceived and produced Books Our Children Read, a documentary educational film on literature in the school curriculum.

LISA D. McNARY

Assistant Professor, Business Division at LaGrange College, 601 Broad Street, La Grange, Georgia 30240-2999, is the owner of DISC Consulting, Ltd. She received her B.A. from Louisiana State University, her M.S. from Lamar University, her Ph.D. at University of New Mexico, and completed post-doctoral study at The Ohio State University. She has over fifteen years of experience in industry, government, and academia in such areas as Human Resources, Quality, Labor, and Training. Her work is strongly influenced by her doctoral mentor, Dr. W. Edwards Deming, the founder of Quality Management.

STEPHEN E. PARRISH

Librarian and Asssistant Professor of Philosophy, Concordia University, 4090 Geddes Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48105, is the author of God and Necessity: A Defense of Classical Theism (University Press of America, 1997), and the co-author (with Francis J. Beckwith) of See the gods Fall (College Press, 1997), and The Mormon Concept of God: A Philosophical Analysis (Edwin Mellen Press, 1991).

TOM PORTER

has a BA in philosophy from UCLA. He did three years of graduate work in philosophy at UCLA and USC, and then 2 years of mathematics at CSUN. He is currently pursuing a JD at Southwestern University.

CAROLYN RAY

2698 Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, obtained her Ph.D. and M.A. in philosophy at Indiana University, and her B.A. in philosophy at Hollins College. Author of a doctoral dissertation on "Identity and Universals," she specializes in epistemology and applied ethics. She is currently engaged in research on the theory of mind and artificial intelligence. She practices philosophical consulting, landscape consulting, and web programming in La Jolla, California and on the Internet. She also heads Enlightenment, an organization that promotes Objectivist scholarship.

ADAM REED

Associate Professor of Information Systems, California State University, Los Angeles, California 90032-8123,studied electrical engineering, computer science and neurophysiology as an undergraduate and graduate student at MIT. He completed his doctorate in mathematical psychology at the University of Oregon and did postdoctoral research in neural networks at Rockefeller University. Before joining Cal State LA, he spent 18 years at Bell Labs, working in artificial intelligence and software engineering. He is the author of 15 research articles and 3 patents.

PETER SAINT-ANDRE

Received a B.A. in philosophy and classics from Columbia University but now works full-time on Jabber, an open-source Internet infrastructure project. He is active as a poet, musician, translator, and essayist. He edits a literary webzine, and has published a well-regarded online dictionary of philosophy. His essays have appeared in Full Context, Liberty, Objectivity, Reason Papers, and Summa Philosophiae.

FRED SEDDON

currently holds adjunct professorships at three universities in South Western Pennsylvania. He has been president of the West Virginia Philosophical Society since 1988 and is an associate member of the Center for the Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh. He is an international scholar and the author of over 100 books, articles, book reviews and speeches, including such works as Ayn Rand, Objectivists and the History of Philosophy, An Introduction to the Philosophical Works of F.S.C. Northrop, and Aristotle and Lukasiewicz on the Principle of Contradiction.

JANE YODER

earned her B.A. degree in philosophy in 1952 and an M.Ed. in 1972 from Rutgers University. Retirement from corporate clerical endeavors makes possible a return to more studious activities and pleasures. Continuing education takes place in the Galt’s Gulch state of Colorado and on the Internet. She is enrolled in advanced age adult study through a program sponsored by Denver University. In 2002, she taught a course on Ayn Rand and Objectivism.